Sunfish artificial propagation and culture method

The blue-green sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) is a scorpion-shaped, sunfish family, also known as the blue-eyed sunfish. The English name is Bluegill sunfish. Native to freshwater waters in North America. The fish is tall, flat on the side, small on the head and small on the tail. There is a dark blue purple ear shaped protrusion behind the lid. There are 7-10 dark yellow stripes on the body side. When the average individual is about 200g in weight, they can reach 1kg individually. U.S. cultivated sunfish also have copper kiss scales sunfish and red-eared sunfish.
Blue-green ichthyoptera is a type of temperate fish. The temperature range for growth is large, and it can live at a water temperature of 1-38°C. When the water temperature is below 8°C or above 38°C, feeding is stopped. Water temperature of 2°C can still safely overwinter in the natural environment.
The blue-green ichthyosaur sunfish is an aggressive feeding fish. Animal food is the main food. Juveniles are foods such as larvae, copepods, and chironomid larvae. Small fish eat plants stems and leaves, sheath algae, small trash fish, shrimp, mollusks and rotifers. Artificial breeding can feed a large number of animal feed such as chilled fish and artificial compound feed.
Blue-green ichthyosaurs are abundantly distributed in the southern United States and the freshwater waters of northern Mexico and are one of the important species for aquaculture in North America. Japan was introduced from the United States in 1960 and later moved to South Africa. In the country of origin and Japan, sunfish are used as a target for freshwater aquaculture and are used for food, sport fishing, and ornamental fish species. China imported fish fry from the United States in 1987 by the Hubei Fisheries Research Institute. The Chinese Society of Fisheries also introduced breeding in Beijing and Hunan in the same year. In 1998, the provinces of Dongguan and Shunde in our province also introduced aquaculture from the United States.
The blue-green ichthyosaur sunfish is a small-sized fish. Although it reproduces in the natural environment, due to its small size and extremely small egg mass, newly hatched juveniles are only 0.2cm in size, making it difficult to feed, and fish and shrimp in water. Some aquatic organisms will ingest freshly hatched small fish, making it difficult to form a certain number of populations. Foreign farming of sunfish is based on artificial propagation of seedlings. China currently stocks a small amount of sunfish, which were introduced from abroad and no artificial breeding has been reported in China. In recent years, the imported seedlings have a 3cm specification of 2.2-2.5 yuan per tail. Last year, Shunde purchased 4-5cm of solar fry from the United States at a price of 0.8 US dollars per tail. Due to the high price, it is difficult to carry out large-scale farming. In order to solve the fry required for large-scale farming, we have conducted studies on the habits and artificial propagation of sunfish. In the early period, due to the lack of understanding of the food and feeding characteristics of the newly hatched juveniles, feeding with multiple feeds failed. The hatched juveniles continued to die after the fourth day, and none of the first batch of breeding stocks survived. After a period of exploration, we have initially grasped the artificial breeding of sunfish and juvenile fish breeding techniques. By August 1999, a total of 18 batches of artificial breeding were conducted, and 3 million fish fry of different specifications were bred, of which 3 million seedlings were 1 million in size. These fry were successively provided to specialized fish farmers for stocking. Artificially produced fry, the current price of 3cm seedlings is 0.7-1.0 yuan per tail, which is only 1/3 of that of imported seedlings of the same specifications. Due to local breeding, the problem of low survival rate due to long-distance transportation has been solved, production costs have been reduced, large amounts of foreign exchange have been saved, and aquaculture area has been rapidly expanded.
1 The artificial breeding of sunfish from sunfish to maturity requires a period of one and a half to two years. For artificial breeding, the first choice is to choose a mature and mature broodstock, which is to be stocked in a pond of approximately 2 acres in size. The depth of water is required to be about 1.5 meters, and about 800 acres are stocked. When the water temperature of the early spring pond reaches 20°C, the ponds flush three times a week for 2 hours each time. The purpose of the flushing is to cause the flow of the pond water to stimulate the gonad development of the broodstock. Good quality chilled fish scraps are placed every morning and evening to enhance cultivation. Fish ponds are sterilized once a month. Each cubic metre of water is diluted with 0.2 g of furazolidone (Ferritin) and spilled.
1.1 Preparation of spawning ponds Fish pond area requirements 7-10m2, depth 30cm. A shading net is set at a height of 2m above the pool, and the shading rate is required to be 60%-70%. The pool water is diluted with copper sulfate 0.5 g, ferrous sulfate 0.2 g, furazolidone 1 g, and oxytetracycline 1 g for every 24 hours for sterilization. After disinfection, the broodstock are transferred from the fish pond to the spawning pool and the broodstock 2 - 3 groups are stocked per square meter of water. Male and female ratio is 1:1. Because the sunfish have the habit of making acupuncture eggs, when we artificially propagated at the initial stage, in the absence of nests, the broodstock did not spawn in the fish pond until the eggs matured and died. After many groping and mastering their habits, each pair of broodstock in the fish pond has an artificial nest to allow each pair of broodstock to spawn exclusively in one nest. Sunfish eggs are viscous eggs, and the eggs are discharged into flat plates without stacking and sinking. In order to facilitate the collection of eggs into the hatchery, a 30cm40cm 60 mesh fish net cloth should be placed in the artificial nest and pressed with a small stone at the bottom of the artificial nest. The fish eggs are evenly distributed on the net cloth. The broodstock can produce eggs and move the net cloth to the hatchery. It not only solved the difficulty of collecting the adhered cement surface of fish eggs, but also solved the problem of low hatching rate due to lack of oxygen in the bottom layer. The use of a mesh material for collecting fish eggs is critical. It is required that the eggs be in a semi-floating state when hatched in the hatchery to allow the eggs to be in the best position in the water layer, which can greatly increase the hatching rate. The use of other materials such as mosquito net gauze, woven bag cloth or nylon membranes is not ideal. These materials are not sinking or floating surfaces, or smooth non-stick yolks.
1.2 Artificial oxytocin treatment
1.2.1 artificial aphrodisiac. Females were injected with 500 IU HCG/kg and pituitary 1 mg/kg, and the male injected dose was halved. The effect is 24 hours.
1.2.2 artificial production. Females were injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) 1000 international units/kg and pituitary gland 2 mg/kg, males were halved. After 24 to 26 hours after the hormone injection, the broodstock begin to ovulate and fertilize. After 6-10 hours, the oviposition is over. Eggs produced are evenly distributed on the mesh.
1.3 Feeding and management of newly hatched juveniles Transfer the eggs covered with eggs to the hatchery pond. The water depth of the hatching pool requires 50cm. After the fish eggs are transferred into the fish eggs, they are impacted with microfluidic water to increase the oxygen in the water. Water temperature 22-30 °C, eggs hatched after 36-50 hours. After the eggs hatch, the mesh is removed. The newly hatched juveniles started feeding after 48 hours at a water temperature of 25-30°C. Due to the small body size of newly hatched juveniles, they are unable to consume normal artificial feed and must feed very small foodstuffs. Within three to four days after the start of the feeding, the cooked chicken broiled the yolk and fed the small particles filtered through a 50-mesh gauze. Later, plankton, cladocera and copepod plankton can be fed. After 3-4 days, red worms can be used as feed for aquaculture. After 7-8 days, they can be changed to small-grained labor. Formulated feed. When the fish is 3cm long, they can be moved to a pond or sold.
2 Farming of Sunfish Sunfish is a kind of freshwater fish with good flesh quality, and it is currently sold at a higher price in the market. According to the observations of breeding, the breeding environment and requirements are similar to those of the freshwater fish farmed in China. It can be cultivated in freshwater waters such as ponds, reservoirs and rivers. It can be cultured alone or mixed with other breeds of fish. According to foreign data reports, stocked fry 3cm size, after a year and a half to two years of weight reached the market specifications of 100g. We have greatly accelerated the growth rate of sunfish by improving aquaculture environment, launching palatable feeds, adding fertilizer and water to increase plankton and other measures. According to the breeding practice, stocking fry 3cm in size, breeding for 180 days, weight can reach 100g. Less than half of the breeding time reported by foreign countries. We bred in a 2m0.7m indoor concrete pool with a depth of 0.2m. We stocked juvenile fish in batches from June 1 and stocked a total of 180 fish. As of September 12, the total weight has reached 1kg. The initial batch of stocking individuals has reached a maximum of 500g or more. Tests have shown that there is no killing of the sunfish, and that the fish can be stocked at higher density and different specifications.
2.1 Only raise the sunfish in the pond. The single-cultivation method is characterized by the fact that the fish can concentrate on feeding and the farming cycle is short, and can be cultivated and strengthened. When the water temperature is above 20°C, stocking 3cm fish fry and stocking 4000-5000 mu. About half a year, per mu can reach 50kg. The size of ponds that stocked the sunfish is not limited, and it is appropriate to use 3-5 acres per pond. The water depth of the pond is about 1.5m. It is convenient to drain the pond water. Each pond is equipped with an aerator.
2.1.1 Disinfection of the pond prior to release. When using drugs to disinfect, pond water retains an average depth of 1m. Use the following methods to remove wild fish and other harmful organisms from the pond.
(1) Use 75-100kg of lime per acre. After melting, the whole pond should be sprayed evenly. After 7-8 days, the drug will disappear and the fish will be released after testing the water.
(2) Use bleaching powder (containing 30% of available chlorine) 16-20kg per mu, and dissolve the entire pond after it is melted. After 6-7 days, the drug disappeared and the fry was released.
2.1.2 Foster pond water. On the same day or the next day after the drug is disinfected with clear ponds, 25-35k g of ground peanut bran or 25-40kg of wheat bark and white peony should be placed per acre to enrich the pond water with organic matter, and to promote cladocera and copepods. The reproduction of planktonic aquatic organisms such as young species such as chironomid mosquitoes will provide abundant supplementary feed after the fry is released. After one week of cultivation, the fry can be released.
2.1.3 Fry delivery volume and specifications. With a target of 500kg per mu, 4000-5000 tails of aquarium will be released. Fry size should be more than 3cm. If you want to get more output, you can stock some of the fry for a while after the first batch is released. In order to catch in batches, increase production.
2.1.4 Feeding. After culturing pond plankton, it can provide abundant supplementary feed for the first-time fry, but it still needs to put enough feed in the seedling stage. Small fish fed artificial diets of small particles can be used to feed animal feed (chilled fish), meat residue, peanut bran, vegetable protein pellets.
2.1.5 Prevention and treatment of fish diseases. Sunfish have strong disease resistance. Since the introduction, no serious devastating diseases have been seen. Pay attention to the prevention and treatment of common fish diseases in the breeding process.
(1) Gill disease. Symptoms: The naked eye shows white rot and mud. The inner skin of the patella is congested. In severe cases, the middle part is often eroded into an irregular, transparent “small window”. The activity is slow, the body is dark, and the head is particularly dark. The following methods can be used to prevent and cure: 1g of water per cubic meter of bleaching powder, after the dissolution, the whole pond is splashed evenly. Or with furazolidone (Ferritin) 0.2-0.5 g per cubic meter of water. After dissolution, the whole pond is splashed evenly.
(2) Trichinosis. Trichodinosis is mainly caused by a large number of trichomonads parasitizing on the skin or palate of a fish body. The fish that infect the disease are black and thin, feeding out of the group and swimming slowly. Control methods: 0.5g of copper sulfate per cubic meter of water, 0.2g of ferrous sulfate, or 0.7g of copper sulfate alone. Or soak with 2% saline for 15 minutes or 3% saline for 5 minutes or more.
2.2 Polytrophic solar fish may be polycultured with carp, domestic fish or other species of fish. By adopting a polyculture approach, sunfish can ingest large amounts of small plankton in ponds, and control overexpansion of plankton and small-scale fish and shrimp and invertebrates in ponds. Not only can the water quality be adjusted, but also the yield of the main breed can be increased. In the case of polyculture, the average seedlings are put in 5 cm or more seedlings, and stocks of 500 to 20 out of a mu are reared. The stocking amount may be determined depending on the main product of the polyculture pond.
2.3 Rafting Rafting Sunfish is also an object of game fishing. Where there are tourist spots with water bodies, pools, fish ponds, reservoirs, and lakes can be stocked for fishing. The specifications, quantity, and management of stocking fry can refer to polyculture.

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