Straw raising cattle technology

Straw Feed Preparation Various crop straws (such as corn stalks, sorghum stalks, rice straw, wheat straw, millet stalks, potato vines, etc.) can be used as roughage for cattle breeding. After the straw is harvested, it must be air-dried (sun) in time to avoid mildew. The dried straw is preferably chopped and stored in the grass. If it is not conditional, it can be stored in the open air, but it must be kept well and covered. Because of the rain, the sun will reduce the value of straw feeding.
Straw treatment In general, straw is a low quality roughage. The value of straw feeding can be improved through physical, chemical or biological treatments.
1, the physical processing of the most simple and practical method of physical processing is short. The folk saying has always been a saying that "they have no clue and they have no knowledge of what they have." It makes sense. Scientific experiments show that although it does not improve digestibility, it can increase feed intake and increase daily gain. Some farmers crush the straw to feed cattle, thinking that it can improve digestibility. In fact, straw smashing reduces the digestibility. In addition, this type of operation consumes more energy and is unnecessary. After the straw is chopped, if it can be soaked or panned, the effect will be better. Soaking can use water, but also put a little salt in the water. Straw after steeping (or rinsing) can be directly fed to cattle, but it is more ideal if it is mixed with bran or a little concentrate before feeding. The reasonable cutting length of straw depends on the type of straw. Crude straw (such as sorghum, corn stalks) should be cut short, preferably less than 1 cm; relatively fine, soft straw (such as wheat straw, rice straw, etc.) can be cut longer, generally up and down 3 cm. A small amount of stalks can be cut by hand. A large number of eager cuts and rakes can increase efficiency and reduce labor.
2. Chemical treatment The most practical chemical treatment to date has been amination. The total nutritional value of ammoniated straw can be doubled. The ammoniation of straw has been introduced in specialized books and magazines, and it will not be described in detail here.
3. There are many advertisements and propaganda about straw biological treatment in the biological treatment newspapers and magazines. Most of them are exaggerated and should not be taken lightly. To date, the "micro-storage" technology developed by the Urumqi Starfish Agricultural Science and Technology Application and Extension Service Station has been approved by the Ministry of Agriculture and the State Science and Technology Commission. The biological treatment technologies developed by other units must not be used without the approval of the Ministry of Agriculture.
After some crops (such as corn and sorghum) harvest the ear, the straw is still green, and the nutritional value of the straw is better at this time. The nutrition of the straw can be preserved through “silage”. Silage, also a biological treatment method, is to preserve the nutrition of green feed by “anaerobic fermentation” (similar to the principle of making kimchi). Straw silage is a good feed and can be fed without any further treatment.
Straw feeding As mentioned earlier, straw is a poor roughage. If cattle are simply fed with untreated straw, the cattle will not grow long, and they will even lose their weight. In terms of animal husbandry, straw is difficult to meet the "maintenance needs" of milk. However, if the ammoniated straw is fed, it will exceed the maintenance needs of the cattle. It is also said that cattle not only no longer lose their weight, but also can grow meat, but the weight gain is very slow. The experiments conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Zhoukou, Henan Province showed that the daily gain of cattle fed ammoniated straw alone was only 0.25 kg or less. However, if 1 kg of cottonseed cake is supplemented daily outside the ammoniated straw, the daily weight gain will rise to 0.6 kg; 2 kg of cottonseed cake will be supplemented, and the weight of the temple will be more than 0.7 kg; 3 kg of cottonseed cake, The daily weight gain is more than 0.8 kilograms. In view of this, straw cattle supplementation is very important. Correct feeding should follow the following principles.
1, supplementation should be protein instead of energy. Cakes are rich in protein and are ideal feed supplements. Cereals (such as corn) are energy feeds that are not as good as cottonseed cakes and are relatively expensive. They should not be used as the primary supplement.
2, as far as possible to buy low-cost cakes, cottonseed cake, rapeseed cake containing a certain toxin, feeding pigs, feeding chickens are strictly limited, while ruminants such as cattle and sheep are more tolerant. Using cottonseed cake and rapeseed cake supplements can reduce costs.
3. The amount of supplementary feed should be based on forage, feed, and cattle prices. If the concentrate is relatively cheap and the price of cattle is high, then it can be used to supplement some food; on the other hand, if the concentrate is expensive and the price of cattle is low, feed less. some. Usually, the daily feed supplement for each cow should not exceed 2-3 kilograms, otherwise it is not economical. However, during the fast fattening period before beef cattle are slaughtered, there may be more concentrates. Cattle and "hanging" cattle do not have to use too much fine material.

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