At present, soft-shelled turtle farming is basically an intensive, high-density, high-yield culture with a large amount of fish on the pond, a relatively poor water environment, and related diseases caused by high levels of ammonia in the pond water. This is why it is necessary to carefully analyze ammonia nitrogen. How is it produced and how can ammonia nitrogen be reduced in water? First, the main source of ammonia nitrogen 1, the decomposition of nitrogen-containing organic compounds produce ammonia nitrogen. In soft-shelled turtle ponds, feed residues such as turtle feed, chilled fish, and snail meat as well as the bodies of dead turtles and other wild fish can be decomposed to produce ammonia nitrogen. 2. In the absence of oxygen in water, nitrogen-containing organic matter is reduced by denitrifying bacteria to produce ammonia nitrogen. The important condition for denitrification is the anaerobic environment. When the water in the soft-shelled turtle pond becomes eutrophic, the dissolved oxygen in the water is low, and when the temperature is relatively high, the denitrifying microorganisms such as Clostridium will reduce the nitric acid in water to Asia. Nitric acid and ammonia. 3. The metabolites of soft-shelled turtles, other fish raised, and wild fishes are generally excreted in the form of non-ionic ammonia, which causes the rise of ammonia nitrogen in the water. Second, the harm of ammonia nitrogen In the intensive culture of soft-shelled turtle ponds, if you can not change the water, the daily management of a slight negligence, can easily cause the dissolved oxygen in the water is too low and ammonia nitrogen is too high, thus affecting the growth of turtles, and even sick death. This is mainly due to the fact that in addition to lung respiration, the soft-shelled turtle exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide in the water with its capillary-rich oropharyngeal mucosa, ventral skin, and cloacal cavity. When the continuous oxidative decomposition of the excrement of the soft-shelled turtle and other aquatic animals, residual baits, and organic debris, resulting in increased ammonia content, and the pH is relatively high, the conversion rate of ionic ammonium to non-ionic ammonia is high, non-ionic Ammonia is multiplied, so that ammonia is oxidized by nitrosated bacteria to nitrous acid. At this time, nitrifying bacteria are inhibited due to the rapid increase of ammonia, so that nitrous acid cannot be further oxidized to nitric acid, resulting in large accumulation of nitrite. Nitrite is a strong oxidant. It is absorbed by turtles and enters the blood to oxidize the divalent iron in hemoglobin to trivalent iron. This results in hypoxemia and hypoxia in tissues. Organs gradually develop lesions and necrosis and cause soft-shelled turtles. Mass death. After several years of turtle breeding, the author found that the turtle's tolerance requirement for ammonia nitrogen is less than 0.4 mg/L. When the ammonia concentration in the water is greater than 0.6 mg/L, the turtle will gradually become rot if no measures are taken in time. Skin, perforation, and then the development of white floor, edema, emphysema and other diseases and cause large-scale explosive death. In July 2000 in Panyu, Guangzhou, this situation occurred on a single turtle farm, and began to die several dozen each day. Later it developed to several hundred a day, and when it was brought to the clinic with a turtle and water sample, the pond was treated. Has accumulated 4000 to 5000 dead turtles, the measured water samples, ammonia nitrogen reached 1? 5 mg / l, nitrite 0-3 mg / l. Of course, there are complicated reasons for the death and death of soft-shelled turtles, but one can not help but to say that high ammonia-nitrogen in pond water is an important pathogenic factor for turtles. 3. Countermeasures for Effective Reduction of Ammonia Nitrogen 1. After each dry pond, sprinkling biological preparations such as photosynthetic bacteria and active enzymes to the bottom of the pond, and loosen the bottom mud with rice dumplings, then add water to 10 cm so that the organic waste in the sediment is Absorb and transform fully. 2. The feed line is fed on the water. The feed pellets are dipped in a little water and fixed with 3 to 5 nails to prevent it from being pushed into the water by the soft-shelled turtle. The feed should be strictly controlled within 2 to 3 hours. Observe the feeding situation of the soft-shelled turtle and make records every day. The amount of feed should be increased or decreased in time, and the leftovers and the lost feed should be kept to a minimum. 3. When the summer season comes to a high temperature, use bamboo to fix aquatic water hyacinths or water-living lotus plants at the water intake of the pond or beside the food table, but the quantity should not be too large. When the plants grow too dense or have dead plants Remove fish in a timely manner to maintain a certain amount of water to achieve the purpose of purifying water quality. At the same time, it can provide a cool summer shelter for turtles to achieve local cooling. 4. Due to the prevalence of poor water quality at the moment, the author advocates the use of a sufficient area of â€‹â€‹sedimentation tanks. After the water body has been disinfected, it enters the turtle pond. And the pond should be flushed and changed regularly to ensure that there is enough dissolved oxygen in the water to facilitate the normal breathing of the turtle and to accelerate the oxidative decomposition of organic substances such as nitrogen. 5. Raise the fish such as squid, squid, and local pond in the pond, make full use of turtle feed and other organic substances that are lost in the water, so as to adjust the water quality and increase the economic benefits. 6, timely clean up the bodies of sick turtles and other fish in the pond, and the organic debris such as dead algae that floats under the tuyere of the pond should be promptly removed. 7. The feed plate used will not only allow the turtle to feed normally, but also prevent the feed from being easily pushed into the water. 8. Regularly use physical adsorbent (20ppm) such as bottom protection agent to sprinkling the periphery of the tank and the feeding area. Degradation of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other toxic substances in the water will increase dissolved oxygen content and stabilize water quality.
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