I. The main varieties of domestic varieties are Beijing Research Mini One, Beijing Research II, and Beijing Research Third. There are mainly foreign countries such as Radix, Daidoxing and Kant in the Rexroth Company; HA in Israel Hessella Company. ~ 454, HA ~ 9976, etc.; French Opel and other varieties. The series of domestic and foreign cucumber varieties are all one-generation hybrids, which are sturdy and indeterminate. The plants grow robustly, and the fruit is cylindrical. The fruit length is 13 to 18cm. The fruit is smooth and thorn-free, highly organized, and the fruit is concentrated. The yield is extremely high. .
1, the cultivation season can be planted 2 to 3 years in 1 year, can also be used for long-term cultivation, 1 year 1 large bowl. Early spring sorghum planting seedlings from mid-January to early February, planting in mid-February and harvesting in late-March. Late autumn cultivation is planted in mid-August and planted at the end of August to early September and harvested from October to December. Overwintering pods were planted in late September to mid-October and planted from late October to mid-November, and harvested from December to February.
2, cultivate seedlings per acre with a seed volume of about 75g. Seeds are hot-pressed in 55-degree hot water and stirred continuously. The water temperature drops and then the water is heated to keep the water temperature at 55Â°C for 10 minutes; or with 50% carbendazim 500-fold soaking for half an hour, then soaking in warm water 4ï½ž Let it cool in 6 hours and germinate at 24ï½ž26Â°C. Use nutrient pods (10cm10cm) or plugs (50 holes) to raise seedlings. It is best to use grafted seedlings. Long-season cultivation must use grafted seedlings. Commonly used rootstocks are black-skinned squash. Both cucumbers and black-skinned squash are sown in the seedling tray. Cucumbers are sown 3 to 5 days earlier than pumpkins. When the pumpkin cotyledons are flattened, they are grafted when the true leaves are revealed. Winter and spring nursery should use electric hotbed, multi-layer covering insulation. Seedlings use precision on demand, germination temperature is suitable for 24 ~ 26 Â°C, generally 4 days to emerge, after emergence, maintain 20 ~ 28 Â°C during the day, night 14 ~ 18 Â°C. On cloudy days, it is 20 to 25Â°C during the day and 10 to 12Â°C at night. One week before planting, low-temperature seedlings should be planted. Daytime bed temperature 20 ~ 25 Â°C, night 5 ~ 10 Â°C, while controlling watering. In summer and autumn nursery seedbeds are covered with shade nets to cool down the shade, small waters are poured to prevent drought and cool down, and when the rains are covered, agricultural film seedlings are added. Seedling age 25 to 35 days, physiological seedling age 2 leaves 1 heart colonization is the most suitable, the maximum seedlings no more than 4 leaves. Seedlings grow seedlings, dark green leaves, thick stems, developed roots, no pests and diseases.
Third, the first half of planting and planting Mushi high-quality organic fertilizer 8 to 10 cubic meters, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium three elements of compound fertilizer 50 ~ 80kg, fine soil preparation, ditch, disinfection. It is made of small sorghum, which is 80-120cm wide and two rows. Seedlings 2 to 3 true leaves when planting, spacing 35-40cm, 1700-2000 per acre planted. Set the planting election on sunny days, dig a hole to water, and then cover the hole with soil after infiltration, so that the soil and soil of the seedling will be combined to facilitate the development of the root system.
Fourth, field management
1, temperature control planting transplanted after the first shed, pay attention to ventilation and shade, began to vent outlet to be larger, and gradually close the studio, when the outside temperature dropped to 14 ~ 16 Â°C, stamped straw. Overwintering and picking cucumbers are not ventilated for 5-7 days after planting, so that they reach 28-32Â°C during the day and more than 20Â°C during the night. After incubation, the white friends hold 25-28Â°C, no more than 30Â°, and 14Â°-20Â°C at night. After the leaves of the leaves are unfolded, the night temperature can be appropriately reduced to allow the early morning temperature to reach 10-15Â°C to facilitate female flower differentiation, but the night temperature should not be too low to prevent flowering. During the severe winter season, it is maintained at 23 to 25Â°C during the day, 15 to 18Â°C â€‹â€‹at night, and 10 to 12Â°C in the early morning. After entering the spring, it is maintained at 28 to 30Â°C during the day, and does not exceed 32Â°C and 18 to 21Â°C at night.
2. Fertilizer and water management The temperature of autumn cucumbers and cucumbers is high after the colonization of cucumbers. Watering should be timely and cultivating in time to promote root growth; Since cucumbers are mostly parthenogenetic, generally no more than 5 knots do not contain melons. In order to cultivate strong seedlings, the melon period is poured once every 3 to 5 days, and the water is chased once between the two waters. In the cold season, appropriate water and fertilizer control, as the temperature is getting lower and lower, can increase the watering interval to 10 to 12 days once, to prevent the ground temperature due to watering, until the temperature rise every 4 to 5 days Pour water once. Fertilizer should be applied in small quantities several times with water, into the harvest period, with the application of watering Mushi 20 ~ 30kg compound fertilizer plus 20kg urea, fruiting period of the leaves to be sprayed once a week 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate or other Foliar fertilizer, fruit melon period, fertilize every 8 to 10 days mu.
Fifth, the plant to adjust the autumn and winter cucumbers easy to grow, must be timely on the shelves or tied vines, removal of side branches, combined restrained weak vines help weak, coordinate plant growth. Overwintering cultivation, the rootstock when the emergence of lateral branches should be removed in time, into the early results, we must remove tendrils in a timely manner to reduce the ineffective nutrient consumption, and prevent winding. Excessive female flowers or flowers appear to be sparse when part of female flowers, female flowers or young females have differentiated also be removed as soon as possible to enhance plant growth. In the late stage of fruiting, the growth rate of plants is accelerated and must be promptly dropped. After planting, 15 to 16 pieces of green functional leaves should be reserved for each plant, and the leaves should be evenly distributed in the space of about 20 to 150 cm from the ground, so that the leaf area index Keep it above 4 and the ground stalks should be evenly spread on the surface. When falling, both tendrils and melons are removed and some female flowers are removed to maintain the balance between vegetative growth and reproductive growth. Cucumber grows long and does not pick up. In order to improve the ventilation and light conditions of the lower part of the plant, reduce the consumption of nutrients and the occurrence of various diseases, the old, yellow and diseased leaves should be promptly removed.
Sixth, pest control Cucumber diseases and diseases mainly include downy mildew, powdery mildew, bacterial angular spot, blight and so on. Insect pests include leafminers, aphids, and whiteflies. The prevention and control of pests and diseases should follow the principle of â€œprevention-based, comprehensive prevention and controlâ€. High-toxicity and high-residue pesticides should not be used. Strict control of pesticide species can be used to control downy mildew in 800 to 1000 times of formacarb or creamy gram; 4,000 times for agricultural use. Streptomycin inhibits bacterial keratoses; in the case of Fusarium wilt, 500 times the carbendazim solution can be rooted once every 7 days during the seedling stage; 1500-2000 times of the Green Vegetable Pod solution can be sprayed when the larvae occur. When the locust occurs, it can spray 1500 times imidacloprid solution.
Seven, timely harvesting autumn and winter cucumber picking use of small cucumbers for plant adjustment, weak growth should be early harvest, strong growth may be appropriate to late harvest; after the temperature is reduced to light harvest, and can be appropriate delayed harvest. Overwintering and picking cucumbers, due to the low temperature during the growing season and the short duration of sunshine, are conducive to female flower differentiation and should be harvested early. The general standard is a cucumber with a length of 13-18cm and a diameter of 2-3cm. The flowers can be harvested when they begin to be thanked. Cut the cucurbits with scissors and take care of them gently.
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